Species Tulips

beautiful bloom blooming blossom

Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com

Colorful hybrid tulips are an iconic symbol of spring. Planted in the fall, they’ll light up next year’s landscape with their tall stems and cup shaped blooms. In subsequent years, they’re likely to decline – sending up fewer blooms, weak foliage and sometimes not bursting through the soil at all. Allowing the foliage to senesce (turn yellow, limp and easy to pull up) after the flowers fade does help supply nutrients to the bulb for the following year, but the popular tulip bulb generally does not bloom for more than a year or two. In fact, tulips in public gardens are often treated as annuals and replanted each year.

tulipasaxatilis_drystonegarden

Tulipa saxatillis   Photo courtesy of Drystonegarden.com

An alternative to the common, hybridized “Holland” tulip are  species or botanical tulips. They are native to Central Asia and other Steppe regions, areas that are climatically similar to Colorado. This group of tulips are shorter (6-12 inches tall), will naturalize, or spread each year by self-sown seeds or stolons and some varieties will send out multiple stems. Good drainage and a sunny location with room for the plants to expand are ideal. The bulbs also do well in gravelly soil and are used successfully in rock gardens.

species tulip_google

Tulipa ‘Little Beauty’ Photo courtesy of Google Free Images

Mid September to late October is an ideal time to plant, setting the bulbs in clumps or drifts and burying 4 inches deep or as recommended for the specific cultivar. Colors range from delicate pastels to vibrant reds and pinks, blooms can be bi-colored and foliage is often grey-green or stippled. Since the foliage is smaller and more compact, the die-back is less unappealing.

 

20180918_135845

Tulipa ‘Lilac Wonder’ Photo by Linda McDonnell

Species tulips can be found online and at independent nurseries, where they are sold in pre-packaged bags and found near other small bulbs such as crocus and muscari.

While I love the flashy hybrid tulip, I’m adding reliable, graceful species tulips to my garden this year too, how bout you?

 

 

 

Resources:

CSU Fact Sheet 7.410: Fall Planted Bulbs and Corms
University of Wyoming: Bulbs Well Adapted to Our Inhospitable Climate,

Written by Linda McDonnell, a Denver County Master Gardener

 

 

 

Advertisements

2019 Colorado Master Gardener/Colorado Gardener Applications Now Being Accepted

We are now taking applications for the 2019 Colorado Master Gardener volunteer class. We are also recruiting Colorado Gardener Certificate students who take the classes without volunteering. The application deadline is Friday, October 19th, 2018 and weekly Wednesday classes run from January 23 through April 10, 2019 from 9:00am-4:00pm. Classes will be held at Denver Botanic Gardens and Jefferson County Fairgrounds. For more information about the program, please visit our website: http://www.cmg.colostate.edu/about.shtml

If you are interested, please call 720-913-5272 or email merrill.kingsbury@denvergov.org for an application.

If you live outside of Denver, please see this link for the CO Master Gardener Program in your county: http://www.cmg.colostate.edu/ask-cmg.shtml

 

‘Sun Gold’ Tomatoes Rise to Top at Tasting

Colorado Master Gardeners from Denver Extension enjoyed sampling and voting for their favorite home-grown tomatoes during the annual picnic. (Photo by Merrill Kingsbury)

Just like location, location, location is the slogan for real estate, ‘Sun Gold’, ‘Sun Gold’, ‘Sun Gold’ was the mantra at the annual Colorado Master Gardener summer picnic on August 25.

‘Sun Gold’ received the most votes and special recognition during the picnic’s tomato tasting.

Three CMGs from the Denver Extension brought their prized ‘Sun Golds’ to the tasting party: Linda McDonnell, John Ashworth and Barb Pinter.

‘Sun Golds’ are a perennial winner at tomato tasting contests because of their high sugar content and exceptional flavor. The bright orange fruits are also extremely prolific, growing bunches of sweet tomatoes on long vines throughout summer.

Other favorite tomatoes at the tasting included Dianne Rainville’s ‘Green Zebra’. One taster singled out this variety for its “nice acidity and beauty.”

Julie Householder and her husband David brought samples of their ‘Goliath’ tomatoes. These tomatoes were extra-special because the plant came from the Master Gardener Plant Sale in May. They also offered ‘Roma’ and ‘Red Siberian’ varieties for sampling.

CMGs John Ashworth and Renata Hahn each brought their favorite tomatoes to the tomato tasting. (Photo by Merrill Kingsbury)

Renata Hahn’s ‘Oh Happy Day’ tomatoes are a beefsteak type hybrid tomato that must get its name for the beautiful ruby-red tomatoes that are bred to be disease resistant.

Other tomatoes sliced and diced for the tasting included ‘Celebrity’, ‘Carbon Purple’, and two different ‘Tommy Toe’ heirloom cherry tomatoes.

The crowd of picnickers numbered 70 and included CMG volunteers and their families. Merrill Kingsbury, Master Gardener Program Assistant, and her husband hosted the annual social event to celebrate another successful gardening season.

The tomato tasting is a picnic bonus. It give gardeners an opportunity to compare different tomatoes for their future plantings. ‘Sun Gold’ could very well be at the top of many must-grow lists for next season.

By Jodi Torpey
A Denver Master Gardener

Need Your Favorite Recipes, Please

Face made of vegetablesWhat’s your favorite way to use the bounty from your vegetable garden?

Whether you’re a gardener who likes to cook or a cook who likes to garden, now’s the thyme to get busy in the kitchen.

August is when the fresh herbs, fruits and vegetables we planted in late spring start to come on strong.

Tomatoes and peppers and zucchini – oh my!

A vegetable garden is a lot of work, and we should celebrate the harvest as long as it lasts. I treat every home-grown tomato like a precious gem. Every eggplant gets the star treatment. Perfect peppers are sliced, diced, fried or dried.

One of my favorite simple salads is to cut thick slices of tomato, sprinkle them with ribbons of fresh basil and then drizzle with olive oil. I could also eat tomato, cucumber and cheese sandwiches (almost) every day. Squash that’s stuffed and baked is also a keeper.

But, like other foodie gardeners, I’m always on the lookout for creative recipe ideas. I know I’m not the only who wants fresh recipes that are quick, tasty and help make sure no garden-grown goodies go to waste.

How do you put your garden-fresh produce to use? Please share your favorite ways to serve up your homegrown treasures for appetizers, snacks, soups, salads, pasta , pickles, and anything else you like to eat. Ways to preserve the harvest count, too.

Use the “comments” section to add your own recipes and ideas or add a link to recipes you’d recommend to other vegetable growers.

Thank you!

By Jodi Torpey
A Denver Master Gardener

Hummingbirds in the Garden

Hummingbirds have been dancing around my yard this summer, lured by plants including Goldflame Honeysuckle, Penstemons (Red Rocks and Pike’s Peak), Coral Bells,  Butterfly Bush and brightly colored annuals such as Verbena, Salvia and Geranium. Red Birds in a Tree was irresistible to them last year, but sadly did not return this year (any suggestions for getting this perennial to reliably come back year after year?).  Agastache and Bee Balms are among other highly prized nectar sources. The Hummingbird Society offers this list of recommended plant families.

Hummers are guided to nectar sources by color – they have no sense of smell – they rely on their keen vision to spot plants or the common red bird feeder filled with sugar-water. Bright hues, especially red, orange and purple, which can be seen from distances of 30’ to 50’ in the air, signal that a good meal awaits. Tubular flowers allow hummers to hover near the bloom and lick nectar with their forked, fringed tongues. As with other pollinators, swaths of the same plant make for effective grazing and a succession of season long blooms encourages return visits. Avoidance of pesticides, a  good source of water and shrubs or trees for perching and nesting also make an inviting habitat.

According to the University of California-Davis School of Veterinary Medicine,  a hummingbird’s wing beat ranges from 720-5400 times per minute when hovering and they have been clocked in flight at 33+ miles per hour!  On average, a hummer weighs less than a nickel and consumes about twice its weight in nectar, spiders and insects  daily. Their metabolism is 100 times faster than an elephant’s, requiring them to busily visit 1,000 to 2,000 flowers daily. They can fly in rain and are the only bird that fly backwards. The distinctive humming sound is made by the wings in flight and actually sounds more like a whistle to me.

Several varieties of hummingbirds have been identified in Colorado, with the most common being the broad-tail. The Audubon Society has established a citizen science program, Hummingbirds at Home, to  chronicle sightings and learn more about food sources.  If you’d like to contribute observations, it’s easy to get started here.

These aerial acrobats will be around till September when they start their journey back to Mexico, with the promise of return next spring. If you don’t already enjoy hummingbirds in your yard, consider adding some plants to lure them in – and encourage your neighbors to do the same to create a larger, more inviting haven for these birds. You won’t regret it.

 

Written and photographed by Linda McDonnell, a Denver County Master Gardener

 

Fair Questions for Master Gardeners

Denver Master Gardeners answer questions from the audience during the “Ask a Master Gardener” session at the Denver County Fair on July 13. The panel included (from left to right) Jodi Torpey, Daniel Neufeld and Elizabeth Neufeld. (Photo by John Pendleton)

Almost 20,000 people attended the Denver County Fair from July 13-15 to enjoy typical fair food and fun.

At the Demo Stage, Denver County Master Gardeners had the chance to answer questions from other gardeners during three “Ask a Master Gardener” panels.

This year was the first time Master Gardener volunteers were put to the test in a panel format. On Friday, I was part of the panel with apprentice master gardeners Elizabeth and Daniel Neufeld. It was fun to take turns answering questions from our CSU Extension Master Gardener training, supplemented with connecting to the CSU Extension website for fact sheets and other information using the fair’s fast Wi-Fi.

Fairgoers stopped by to sit, listen, ask questions and chat about their gardening experiences during the hour-long panel. Some of the discussion topics included:

Why can’t I get my twice-blooming daylilies and irises to bloom more than once a season?
Why aren’t there more young people interested in gardening?
How can a beginning gardener get started?
How can I grow bigger potatoes?
Does a corn cob in the planting hole help retain water?
Is it too late in the season to plant a vegetable garden?
What’s the best way to get rid of bindweed?
What are ways to deal with tree suckers every year?
How can I grow bigger tomato plants?

In addition to questions from the audience, the panel talked about the importance of soil testing, how to access CSU Extension resources online, ways to deal with Japanese beetles, and resources to prepare ahead for Emerald Ash Borer.

Gardeners were especially interested to hear about Elizabeth and Daniel’s project to turn their hell strip into a beautiful low-water xeriscape.

Master Gardeners also participated in panels on Saturday and Sunday. If you were on (or at) one of these other panels, please share some of the questions gardeners asked during your session.

By Jodi Torpey
A Denver Master Gardener

 

Reimagining a Denver Hell Strip

 

A typical hell strip in “Any Town USA”

The hell strip (more politely called a tree lawn) is that pesky rectangular area between the street and the sidewalk. It’s a challenging spot – surrounded by concrete surfaces which make it super hot in the summer and subject to harsh elements in the winter.  Apprentice Denver County Master Gardeners (CMG’s) Elizabeth and Daniel Neufeld challenged themselves to redesign their hell strip by working with, not against the conditions at hand. Their new strip garden incorporates xeric native plants in a creative design which complements their early 1900’s Mayfair bungalow. Here’s a step-by-step description of the project in Elizabeth’s own words.

Site Description and Preparation
The 8.5’ by 16’ site had been a weedy portion of our hell strip. This section of our lawn was never irrigated and though we used a manual sprinkler on it for years, it never really thrived. Weeds from an adjacent bed also crept in and began to take over our lawn.

In June 2017 – after talking to CMG’s at East High’s Farmers Market – we put down 5 mil black plastic over the entire area to solarize the soil and kill the weeds. In March of this year, we removed the plastic and started to work on the soil.

The top several inches of soil was relatively good. Below that, though, was hard packed clay. Based upon our classwork to become CMG’s, and discussions with other CMG’s, we knew that we wanted to create a Native, drought resistant, garden. In order to have the appropriate depth of 2”-3” of pea gravel on top, we needed to dig out the clay. MUCH harder than we anticipated.

First I took every trash can we owned (about 5), and another 3 from a neighbor, and filled them up with just the first 4-5 inches of the topsoil. Then what to do with the clay below?  You can’t put it into the regular trash bins, nor into the city’s green compost bins as  they do not accept soil, primarily because of its weight. I secretly thought I could add just small amounts of dirt weekly and they wouldn’t know the difference. Yet this wasn’t right, and would take forever. We went online and called several places about renting a dumpster, yet the smallest dumpster we could find was going to cost $500, and we’d need to get a permit from the city to place it on the street. We needed another plan.

Perhaps you’ve seen smaller, heavy plastic canvas bags in people’s front yards as they do small remodeling jobs on their homes. These “bagsters” can be bought at a big-box store, and they hold up to 3300 pounds. Once filled, Waste Management will come and collect them for a fee. So we purchased one of these, set it up on our sidewalk next to the hell strip, and completely filled it with about 4” of the clay subsoil. It was truly a Herculean task, and it weighed over a ton, literally.

After the Waste Management dump truck removed the bagster and all its contents, we then put back all of the topsoil we had previously removed. Another day of heavy lifting.

Plant Selection
What to choose, what to choose?! Thank goodness for the CSU Extension fact sheets on Xeriscaping, Low Water gardening, and Native Plants. We also had Pretty Tough Plants, a book by the experts at Plant Select. We  spent a fair amount of time at the Jefferson County Extension office xeric garden, and the Denver Botanic Gardens, and took pictures of plants we liked. We spent a huge amount of time debating which and how many plants to include. The mix and quantities of plants we decided on follow. Click images for plant names.

  • Berlandia lyrate,“Chocolate Flower” (4)
  • Agastache, “Sonoran” (2) and “Coronado” hyssop (1)
  • Delosperma, “Firespinner” and “Red Mountain Flame” iceplants (4)
  • Eriogonum umbellatum, “Kannah Creek” buckwheat (2)
  • Schizachyrium scoparian, “Little Bluestem” (3)
  • Tanacetum densum, “Partridge Feather”  (3)
  • Prunus bessyi, “Pawnee Buttes” Sand Cherry (3)
  • Amorpha fructosa, False Indigo Lead Plant (1)  not shown
  • Miscanthus sinesis  (1) not shown

Design

design
In talking with a fellow CMG apprentice, Brenda Reum – who has her own landscape firm – we decided to put a false arroyo diagonally through the rectangular site. We also wanted a few larger accent rocks, and some medium size rock around the edges. We went to a local sand and gravel company and selected some larger rocks, and got several 5-gallon buckets of mid-size rock. During this time period (late April/early May), we also went camping in Western Colorado for a week. While driving on a dirt road along the Delores River, we came upon a pile of rocks – and collected a few dozen we liked and brought them home!

After creating an outline of the arrangement of the arroyo and the planting on paper, we commenced planting. Like many a good idea, the execution was more time-consuming than anticipated.

Once the planting was complete, we used an online calculator to estimate the amount of pea gravel needed. To have 3” of pea gravel on the site as large as ours, we would need 1 ton of rock. We put a large tarp on the street adjacent to the garden and the delivery truck dumped it on top. We spent hours shoveling the gravel over the dirt, then carefully placed our ‘trophy’ rocks through the arroyo and around the edges. Some clusters of rock are near some of the plants, and we placed a piece of weathered cedar (also found during the camping trip) and a piece of ‘rust art’ in the bed.

Now
20180622_173305The bed has been in for about 6 weeks, and it’s looking great and seems to be happy. We initially watered the plants every 2-3 days for the first 3 weeks, and have now cut back to once weekly. The ice plants and partridge feather are already spreading out, the chocolate flower and hyssop have been blooming. The little bluestem has yet to fully take off, but those plants were the smallest of all when we purchased them. We left plenty of space for the eventual growth and spreading of these plants, and look forward to their ultimate size and height.

Time and Cost of Materials
It is hard to calculate the total amount of time we spent — yet it was easily 3 times more than we thought it was going to be. It was approximately 100 – 150 hours of our own labor.

We found the plants at several independent garden centers as the big box centers did not have any of these. And because of this, the cost was more than we had anticipated, too. We spent approximately $400-$450 on 23 plants.

We spent $30 on purchasing the ‘bagster’, and $120 to have it carted away. We spent $85 on the pea gravel (including delivery), and another $40 on the larger rocks we purchased. All totaled, we spent $675-$725 on the new Native garden.  We are so pleased with the results and hope to expand our collection of native plants in other parts of our garden.

Thank you, Elizabeth, for sharing your experience! If you have a question or comment for Elizabeth, she’ll respond in the comment section.

Photo Credits: Plants: Plant Select.org,  Street Image: Bing Free Images, Garden diagram and completed garden: Elizabeth Neufeld

Posted by Elizabeth Neufeld and Linda McDonnell

 

 

Espalier Tree: An Experiment

Espaliers are a beautiful addition for: a kitchen garden wall, the side of a house, plopping under window, a privacy screen or employed as yard zone divider. Espaliers take up very little space and are easily accessible for people with limited mobility, and also a fun height for children to harvest. Moreover, espalier fruit trees have surprisingly bountiful fruit production. And interestingly espaliers often live longer than more naturally grown trees/vines, including some very old specimens. These plants have the advantages of sunlight that reaches all the branches, less breakage, and importantly if planted against a wall they have the added protection against a late frost, and so potentially retain more blossoms.

 

N49863D01_SZ336.

Photo Credit: Le Potager Garden DBG

When we first moved into our house there was a wall in a small garden that I felt needed a pear espalier. I didn’t feel brave enough (or patient probably) to start a bare-root dwarf fruit tree and establish the training from scratch. So a couple of years ticked by as I waited to win the lottery for a nursery grown one (a four tier espalier can cost over a thousand dollars). The more affordable two tier plants, that are more commonly sold, are perfect for planting under a window, but not for a taller height. To add to this, most of the nursery grafted espaliers have a different variety of fruit on each branch, which although theoretically sounds exciting can actually present aesthetic and practical issues, and not surprisingly the rootstock can dominate in time too.

My experiment was – could I take a mature sapling and train it into an espalier. I am writing this blog as I did not find the information I needed on the internet, and so I plunged ahead into the unknown and broke pretty much every gardening rule. This is an experiment that may or may not succeed.  Any input will be gratefully received! The ideas below are not endorsed by any educated gardener.

I did follow one cardinal rule: “Right Plant- Right Place”. I had my heart set on a pear tree.  But at the nursery I chose the European Stanley Plum as the “right plant”.  It is a hardy choice for Denver, and a larger tree (not a dwarf fruit- the regular espalier choice) should be alright for my wall? Moreover, this sapling had the right growth pattern, as it was fairly two dimensional and symmetrical.  This young tree also sported the required flexible branches for training. Then for the location: the eastern wall, which is bathed in sunlight but not unrelating heat was I felt this “right place”.  I followed correct planting rules! CMG How to Plant a Tree Continue reading

Celebrate the Unsung Insect Heroes During Pollinator Week

It’s Pollinator Week 2018, a time to show some garden love to the bees, butterflies and other insect pollinators that provide services essential to our food supply.

This year, let’s put the emphasis on other insect pollinators.

It’s easy to admire beautiful butterflies sailing effortlessly from flower to flower. We all know how important it is to provide nectar and pollen for native bees. But how many gardeners really, truly appreciate flies? How about other non-bee insects, like moths, wasps and beetles?

These less lovable insects are what some researchers refer to as the “unsung heroes of the pollination world.”

Bees certainly get the most notice for their important work, but they couldn’t do all the pollinating on their own. They need help from other less attractive insects.

In a revealing research study, one Washington State University doctoral student discovered that flies are an important pollinator, too. During her research, Rachel Olsson found that about a third of the insects visiting farm crops were syrphid flies, also known as hover flies.

These flies mimic the behavior of bees, help with pollination and do a bit more. In their juvenile stage, syrphid flies help control aphids, too.

Rachel’s research was funded by a grant from the Western Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education program. She spent several years studying whether non-bee insects contribute to sustainable crop pollination on a network of 24 organic farms in Western Washington.

During her study, she learned pollinators were drawn to one type of crop over another. She had hoped to observe bee and non-bee insects interacting in a way that could improve pollination efficiency.

Still, these overlooked pollinators provide a valuable service and need to be part of conservation efforts, too. That’s why Rachel thinks the results of her research are applicable to Colorado gardeners. It’s important to understand and protect all pollinators, especially the underdogs of the insect world.

An especially useful guide is a booklet Rachel co-authored called, A Citizen Guide to Wild Bees and Floral Visitors in Western Washington. Published by Washington State University Extension, the online guide provides tools for observing and identifying wild bees and other important floral visitors.

By Jodi Torpey
A Denver Master Gardener

Japanese Beetles Make Their 2018 Debut

 

jb_1

The Japanese Beetle – pretty to look at but oh so destructive!

June is a glorious month in the garden, but it also the cue for adult Japanese beetles (Popillia japonica) to emerge from the soil. They’ll hit their peak from late June through at least August. I haven’t spotted the metallic green and copper devils in my garden yet, but if the past is any indication, they’ll visit soon.

Colorado State University offers this comprehensive fact sheet with everything we need to know to defend our plants. It’s an especially valuable reference when considering products which may or may not be beneficial in reducing the pests while doing minimal damage to the ecosystem. If there were best seller lists for gardener information, this would be on the top!

Here are important takeaways from the fact sheet:

05601-fig5Japanese beetles feast on foliage, buds and flowers of their favorite plants. Particularly susceptible are roses, Virginia creeper, Linden trees, Rose of Sharon, Japanese maples, Silver lace vine and Gaura are among their favorite targets. Tell-tale signs of Japanese beetle damage are a skeletonized pattern of mutilation on tender, new foliage and deformed flowers or buds. While unsightly, the damage will not kill the plant.

05601-fig8Traps are not beneficial. That yellow trap you’re tempted to hang in your yard is an open invitation for more Japanese beetles to visit. The trap won’t be able to catch them all and the effect is more, not less damage. Perhaps if your neighbor hangs one…?

Picking does help. Japanese beetles are easy to spot in the cooler parts of the day and can be coaxed into a jar of soapy water with a twig or a shake. Catching is preferable to squishing, as a squashed beetle releases a compound which lures more of their kind. While it may not be fun, catching is oddly satisfying!

Do insecticides work? As always, caution must be used to avoid damage to pollinators, especially when plants are in flower. Products containing pyrethrins, azadirachtin and acetamiprid – used in the early morning or at dusk – when bees and other pollinators are less active – are the safest. See the fact sheet for more details and follow all product recommendations carefully.

Consider removing temptation. Can you replace your Virginia creeper with something less enticing? Do you have roses that have struggled for years? Perhaps it’s time to replace with something less alluring. Conversely, when adding to your landscape avoid plants which are irresistible to this insect.

Late season turf damage. Each female Japanese beetle lays 40-60 eggs in her 4-8 week life span. Eggs are laid deep in moist turf soil. Since eggs and subsequent larvae thrive on moisture, keeping soil on the dry side will inhibit grub development and decrease turf damage. Grubs also munch on turf roots, so mowing at a higher height, which promotes vigorous roots, can help reduce turf damage.  More control ideas can be found in this fact sheet.

Have you spotted Japanese beetles in your garden yet?

 

Submitted by Linda McDonnell, a Denver County Master Gardener