Monthly Archives: June 2018

Espalier Tree: An Experiment

Espaliers are a beautiful addition for: a kitchen garden wall, the side of a house, plopping under window, a privacy screen or employed as yard zone divider. Espaliers take up very little space and are easily accessible for people with limited mobility, and also a fun height for children to harvest. Moreover, espalier fruit trees have surprisingly bountiful fruit production. And interestingly espaliers often live longer than more naturally grown trees/vines, including some very old specimens. These plants have the advantages of sunlight that reaches all the branches, less breakage, and importantly if planted against a wall they have the added protection against a late frost, and so potentially retain more blossoms.

 

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Photo Credit: Le Potager Garden DBG

When we first moved into our house there was a wall in a small garden that I felt needed a pear espalier. I didn’t feel brave enough (or patient probably) to start a bare-root dwarf fruit tree and establish the training from scratch. So a couple of years ticked by as I waited to win the lottery for a nursery grown one (a four tier espalier can cost over a thousand dollars). The more affordable two tier plants, that are more commonly sold, are perfect for planting under a window, but not for a taller height. To add to this, most of the nursery grafted espaliers have a different variety of fruit on each branch, which although theoretically sounds exciting can actually present aesthetic and practical issues, and not surprisingly the rootstock can dominate in time too.

My experiment was – could I take a mature sapling and train it into an espalier. I am writing this blog as I did not find the information I needed on the internet, and so I plunged ahead into the unknown and broke pretty much every gardening rule. This is an experiment that may or may not succeed.  Any input will be gratefully received! The ideas below are not endorsed by any educated gardener.

I did follow one cardinal rule: “Right Plant- Right Place”. I had my heart set on a pear tree.  But at the nursery I chose the European Stanley Plum as the “right plant”.  It is a hardy choice for Denver, and a larger tree (not a dwarf fruit- the regular espalier choice) should be alright for my wall? Moreover, this sapling had the right growth pattern, as it was fairly two dimensional and symmetrical.  This young tree also sported the required flexible branches for training. Then for the location: the eastern wall, which is bathed in sunlight but not unrelating heat was I felt this “right place”.  I followed correct planting rules! CMG How to Plant a Tree Continue reading

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Celebrate the Unsung Insect Heroes During Pollinator Week

It’s Pollinator Week 2018, a time to show some garden love to the bees, butterflies and other insect pollinators that provide services essential to our food supply.

This year, let’s put the emphasis on other insect pollinators.

It’s easy to admire beautiful butterflies sailing effortlessly from flower to flower. We all know how important it is to provide nectar and pollen for native bees. But how many gardeners really, truly appreciate flies? How about other non-bee insects, like moths, wasps and beetles?

These less lovable insects are what some researchers refer to as the “unsung heroes of the pollination world.”

Bees certainly get the most notice for their important work, but they couldn’t do all the pollinating on their own. They need help from other less attractive insects.

In a revealing research study, one Washington State University doctoral student discovered that flies are an important pollinator, too. During her research, Rachel Olsson found that about a third of the insects visiting farm crops were syrphid flies, also known as hover flies.

These flies mimic the behavior of bees, help with pollination and do a bit more. In their juvenile stage, syrphid flies help control aphids, too.

Rachel’s research was funded by a grant from the Western Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education program. She spent several years studying whether non-bee insects contribute to sustainable crop pollination on a network of 24 organic farms in Western Washington.

During her study, she learned pollinators were drawn to one type of crop over another. She had hoped to observe bee and non-bee insects interacting in a way that could improve pollination efficiency.

Still, these overlooked pollinators provide a valuable service and need to be part of conservation efforts, too. That’s why Rachel thinks the results of her research are applicable to Colorado gardeners. It’s important to understand and protect all pollinators, especially the underdogs of the insect world.

An especially useful guide is a booklet Rachel co-authored called, A Citizen Guide to Wild Bees and Floral Visitors in Western Washington. Published by Washington State University Extension, the online guide provides tools for observing and identifying wild bees and other important floral visitors.

By Jodi Torpey
A Denver Master Gardener

Japanese Beetles Make Their 2018 Debut

 

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The Japanese Beetle – pretty to look at but oh so destructive!

June is a glorious month in the garden, but it also the cue for adult Japanese beetles (Popillia japonica) to emerge from the soil. They’ll hit their peak from late June through at least August. I haven’t spotted the metallic green and copper devils in my garden yet, but if the past is any indication, they’ll visit soon.

Colorado State University offers this comprehensive fact sheet with everything we need to know to defend our plants. It’s an especially valuable reference when considering products which may or may not be beneficial in reducing the pests while doing minimal damage to the ecosystem. If there were best seller lists for gardener information, this would be on the top!

Here are important takeaways from the fact sheet:

05601-fig5Japanese beetles feast on foliage, buds and flowers of their favorite plants. Particularly susceptible are roses, Virginia creeper, Linden trees, Rose of Sharon, Japanese maples, Silver lace vine and Gaura are among their favorite targets. Tell-tale signs of Japanese beetle damage are a skeletonized pattern of mutilation on tender, new foliage and deformed flowers or buds. While unsightly, the damage will not kill the plant.

05601-fig8Traps are not beneficial. That yellow trap you’re tempted to hang in your yard is an open invitation for more Japanese beetles to visit. The trap won’t be able to catch them all and the effect is more, not less damage. Perhaps if your neighbor hangs one…?

Picking does help. Japanese beetles are easy to spot in the cooler parts of the day and can be coaxed into a jar of soapy water with a twig or a shake. Catching is preferable to squishing, as a squashed beetle releases a compound which lures more of their kind. While it may not be fun, catching is oddly satisfying!

Do insecticides work? As always, caution must be used to avoid damage to pollinators, especially when plants are in flower. Products containing pyrethrins, azadirachtin and acetamiprid – used in the early morning or at dusk – when bees and other pollinators are less active – are the safest. See the fact sheet for more details and follow all product recommendations carefully.

Consider removing temptation. Can you replace your Virginia creeper with something less enticing? Do you have roses that have struggled for years? Perhaps it’s time to replace with something less alluring. Conversely, when adding to your landscape avoid plants which are irresistible to this insect.

Late season turf damage. Each female Japanese beetle lays 40-60 eggs in her 4-8 week life span. Eggs are laid deep in moist turf soil. Since eggs and subsequent larvae thrive on moisture, keeping soil on the dry side will inhibit grub development and decrease turf damage. Grubs also munch on turf roots, so mowing at a higher height, which promotes vigorous roots, can help reduce turf damage.  More control ideas can be found in this fact sheet.

Have you spotted Japanese beetles in your garden yet?

 

Submitted by Linda McDonnell, a Denver County Master Gardener