Category Archives: Winter gardening

Rose Hips: Autumn’s Other Colorful Treat

Rose hips are petite, crab-apple-like, seed-filled colorful fruits which form at the base of late-season rose blossoms. The comparison to apples is not coincidental – roses and apples are in the same botanical family (Rosaceae), and both produce multiple seeds within their fruit.

To promote hip formation, stop deadheading roses in mid to late August, which signals the plant to stop producing flowers and start preparing for the cold season. While many rose varieties produce these seed pods, Rugosa roses and other shrub roses are noted for producing an abundance of rose hips in shades of gold, orange, or burgundy.

In general, heritage roses form more rose hips than modern, hybridized varieties. See this PlantTalk Colorado publication for planting suggestions.

Hips are also less likely to form on roses that produce “frilly” blossoms with tightly packed petals and never on the newer, self-cleaning varieties such as Knock-Out Roses®.

In addition to ornamental value, the fruit provides fall and winter food for birds and other wildlife; most home gardeners will leave them on the plant. However, if you have an abundance of rose hips (grown without toxins) and are feeling ambitious, here are some rose hip recipes.

A word of caution: While rose hips contain an abundance of vitamin C and other nutrients, they are not a pick-and-eat fruit. In its natural state, a rose hip is mighty bitter and frequently causes severe gastric distress in humans.

Most home gardeners won’t propagate rose seeds, which is an involved, multi-step process that can take three years or more to complete. Seeds from grafted or hybrid roses may not be identical to the parent, either. But if you’re up for a good challenge, here’s some information on germination.

This season, be sure to “peep” some rose hips along with the fall foliage – they are a beautiful, often overlooked sign of the season.

Image: Pixabay.com, a resource for royalty free images. Rose variety not specified.

Written by Linda McDonnell, Denver Master Gardener since 2012.

Growing Garlic in Colorado

By Felicia Brower, Master Gardener Apprentice, Denver County Extension

(Photo credit: Matthew Pilachowski)

As we wrap up our gardens this season, we can begin to think about all of the crops we want next year. If garlic is on your list, now is the time to act.

Garlic (Allium sativum) is easy to grow and a great crop for beginner gardeners. Even though you’ll harvest in July, you’ll need to plant before the end of October. When choosing which garlic you want to plant, know that you’ll need to purchase your bulbs from a garden center, a farmers market, a garlic farm, or a seed catalog (now is the time to place orders for garlic — they sell out quickly this time of year). Grocery store garlic is often treated with anti-growth products that will prevent you from being able to grow your own bulbs from those cloves.

If it’s your first time purchasing seed garlic, you might be surprised at all of the varieties that are available. Each variety has a distinct flavor and an average number of cloves to expect per bulb, so do your research, and choose accordingly.

Choosing Garlic Varieties

There are two distinct types of garlic to choose from: hardneck (ophioscorodon) and softneck (sativum).

Hardneck

Hardneck varieties are easy to identify because of the (you guessed it) hard neck or stem that you’ll find in the center of the bulb. While hardnecks don’t store as long as softnecks, the flavors are often described as being more intense. Hardneck garlic plants produce a scape, which looks like a curly spike with a small bulbous end. Scapes tend to show up a month or so before the plant is ready to harvest and need to be removed so that the plant can continue to send energy down to the development of the new bulb. Good news: scapes are also edible. Popular varieties of hardneck garlic include Chesnok Red, Music, and German Extra Hardy.

Softneck

Softneck varieties are often chosen because they tend to store longer than hardneck varieties, but they have a milder flavor. Most grocery stores carry softneck garlic, and the cloves tend to be smaller and more plentiful. Garlic braids are made with softneck varieties. Popular softneck varieties include Inchelium Red, Silverskin, and Lorz Italian.

Planting Garlic

Garlic plants don’t take up a lot of space and are known to repel rabbits and deer, so consider planting them around the edges of your vegetable and flower beds. Find a sunny spot and prepare your soil by digging a trench. If you notice you have heavy clay soil or very sandy soil, you should amend the soil with some compost prior to planting.

To prepare the garlic for planting, break apart each bulb into cloves, keeping the wrapper on each clove. Choose only the largest cloves to plant to ensure the best and biggest bulbs next summer, and use the smaller cloves for food. Plant the cloves immediately after breaking them apart from the bulb to reduce to risk of disease and excess drying.

Make a trench in the soil three times as deep as the clove. Plant each clove pointy side up four to six inches apart. Cover the cloves with soil, water well, and cover the trench with mulch, leaf litter, or grass clippings. Garlic needs water to grow and thrive, so make sure that you continue to water occasionally (about once every three weeks) throughout the winter season.

The tops of the the plants will start to come up through the winter, but don’t worry. Garlic is a hardy plant, and it should survive. Pull any weeds near the plant as it grows, as they will impact the size of the bulb.

If you plant different varieties in your garden, label each one so that you can make keep records of what grew best and which flavors you preferred for the next time you plant.

While garlic is an easy crop to grow, it is vulnerable to several types of rot. Avoid disease by planting only healthy cloves and being careful not to damage any bulbs while planting things nearby in the spring.

Harvesting Garlic

It’s time to harvest your garlic when the green tops turn brown and begin die down, which typically happens in July if you plant in October. If the soil is loose, you can pull the new bulb up by hand, but if it’s not, use a hand tool to get it out of the soil being very careful not to puncture any of the cloves. If you pull the bulb out of compacted soil, it can create wounds in the bulbs or the stem, which can quickly lead to fungal infections. When they’re removed from the soil, gently brush or rub the dirt off and let the remaining residue dry while the garlic cures. Fresh bulbs are very sensitive and bruise easily, so take care with the removal process.

Curing Garlic

If you want your garlic harvest to last, you need to cure it before you store it. After you pull the bulbs, spread them over or hang them in a warm, airy spot out of direct sun. Do not cover the bulbs with any heavy material, as that can prevent the air flow and encourage rot. If needed, use a lightweight cotton sheet. Store the bulbs at 40-60° F and cure for two to three weeks.

For a visual demonstration of how to plant garlic, watch How to Grow Garlic in Colorado – Produced by Tagawa Gardens, a partner in PlantTalk Colorado.

Indoor Evergreens for Good Health

An evergreen wreath on the front door and a real tree in the family room are conventional decorations for the holiday season. So are those beautiful winter containers filled with evergreen branches sitting on the porch.

But evergreens are much more than outdoor decor.

When placed indoors the greenery adds to the holiday scenery, but it’s that fresh scent that makes them indispensable.

Just like walking in the forest and “forest bathing” are therapeutic, using evergreens indoors is beneficial, too. Evergreens give us a healthy dose of phytoncides when we take a deep breath. These wood essential oils are the same airborne chemicals that trees and other plants give off in nature.

Pine scents and forest atmospheres not only remind us of the holidays, but they benefit our health physically, mentally and physiologically, according to the Michigan State University Extension.

“Phytoncides are antimicrobial volatile compounds produced by plants for their own defenses. It is not entirely clear how those scents affect human brains and bodies, but early research suggests they reduce stress hormones and enhance white-blood activity that boosts immunity and make us less susceptible to disease.”

This season, when you can’t get to the forest for a brisk walk, consider adding fresh evergreens throughout the house. Look for enclosed spaces where people gather, like the entry way, kitchen, dining room, study, family room, bedrooms, game room and even bathrooms.

Interior designers suggest tying small bunches of fresh greens to cabinets, placing on counter tops, filling bowls of greens on desks and side tables, draping swags to top window dressings and creating indoor hanging baskets.

Evergreens for the best scent include pine, cedar, balsam and juniper. Gardeners can clip from the landscape or look for fresh and aromatic branches at garden centers. Avoid any boughs that are already dry and brittle.

Experts recommend treating indoor branches like fresh lilac stems by keeping them in water to make them last the longest.

Use a sharp knife or garden shears to cut woody stems at a 45-degree angle and split the bottoms of the stems with the back of the clippers or small hammer. Strip the foliage that will be submerged in water.

Keep greens away from direct sunlight and heat sources. Treating them with an anti-desiccant plant spray or misting daily with water will help keep the foliage on the stems.

This season, forget the scented holiday candles and use fresh fragrant pine or cedar branches to lower stress and get in the holiday spirit during this busy time of the year.

Text and images by Jodi Torpey
Master Gardener volunteer since 2005

No More Buds? Turn to Earbuds.

By this time in the year, I’m at the point of good riddance! with the weeds and careful tending (shout out to this cold spell for sealing the deal). Pretty much everything is done and put to bed. I then spend the next two weeks really dialing into my houseplant game before I get bored and start Spring dreaming. My Fall break from the garden is short-lived so I start listening to old episodes of now-defunct podcast series and dream with new ones.  Here are a few of my favs:

Gardenerd Tip of The Week

Gardenerd.com is the ultimate resource for garden nerds. We provide organic gardening information whenever you need it, helping you turn land, public space, and containers into a more satisfying and productive garden that is capable of producing better-tasting and healthier food.

https://gardenerd.com/

My thoughts: The host lives in LA, so this one is great for winter listening as we get chillier, I love hearing about the warmth of Southern California and what’s coming into season. Interviews with other experts and educators in the horticulture field discussing plants, but also cultivating grains, discussing bees, and seeds. Each episode ends with the guest’s own tips, many of which are news to me and have been incorporated into my own practices. 

On the Ledge

I’m Jane Perrone, and I’ve been growing houseplants since I was a child, caring for cacti in my bedroom and growing a grapefruit from seed; filling a fishtank full of fittonias and bringing African violets back from the dead.

https://www.janeperrone.com/on-the-ledge

Houseplants, if new to the podcast start here for an overview, and guidance.

Jane is a freelance journalist and presenter on gardening topics. Her podcast has a ton of tips for beginners, and more advanced info for longtime houseplant lovers, as well as interviews with other plant experts. The website is also useful to explore the content of an episode if you aren’t able to listen. I could spend an entire morning traveling in and out of the archives. 

My thoughts: As the growing season comes to a close, my indoors watering schedule starts wobbling between what the plants need and my summer habits of watering too many times per week–welcome back,  fungus gnats! Here’s an entire episode on them

Plant Daddy Podcast

We aim to create a listener community around houseplants, to learn things, teach things, share conversations with experts, professionals in the horticulture industry, and amateur hobbyists like ourselves. We also want to bring the conversation beyond plants, since anybody with leaf babies has a multitude of intersectional identities. We, ourselves, are a couple gay guys living in Seattle, Washington, with a passion for gardening and houseplants. A lot of our friends are the same, though each of us has a different connection, interest, and set of skills in this hobby, demonstrating a small amount of the diversity we want to highlight among plant enthusiasts.

https://plantdaddypodcast.com/

My thoughts: Plants are visual, podcasts are auditory- episodic overviews with links to viewable content available on their website. Are you also seeing Staghorn Ferns everywhere? They have an entire episode (photos included!) on the fern and how to properly mount it for that vegan taxiderm look. Matthew and Stephen are self-identified hobbyists with a passion for plants all the way down to the Latin–it’s impressive.

Epic Gardening

The Epic Gardening podcast…where your gardening questions are answered daily! The goal of this podcast is to give you a little boost of gardening wisdom in under 10 minutes a day. I cover a wide range of topics, from pest prevention, to hydroponics, to plant care guides…as long as it has something to do with gardening, I’ll talk about it on the show!

https://www.epicgardening.com/

My thoughts: The Netflix-episode-when-you-just-don’t-feel-like-a-movie kind of podcast. Addresses the best varietals, composting, soil pH, and troubleshooting some common issues in the garden. With daily episodes archived back to December 2018, there is a quickly digested thought for some of your own curiosities. The website is also a wealth of knowledge. 

Eatweeds Podcast: For People Who Love Plants

Eatweeds: An audio journey through the wonderful wild world of plants. Episodes cover modern and ancient ways wild plants have been used in human culture as food, medicine and utilitarian uses.

http://eatweeds.libsyn.com/

My thoughts: most recent episode (and appropriately timed!)  On edible acorns. My fav topics include foraging and wild yeast fermentation; and when I really start missing the Pacific Northwest, The Wild and Wonderful World of Fungi sends me back to a misty forest wander politely decorated by les champignons. Posting of this pod is sporadic–only 25 episodes since 2014.

You Bet Your Garden

(no longer on air, but archives available)

 

You Bet Your Garden® was a weekly radio show and podcast produced at WHYY through September, 2018. The show’s archive is available online. It was a weekly syndicated radio show, with lots of call-ins. This weekly call-in program offers ‘fiercely organic’ advice to gardeners far and wide.

https://www.wlvt.org/television/you-bet-your-garden/

My thoughts: Host, Mike McGrath, spends much of the show taking calls and troubleshooting, reminiscent of another public radio behemoth with Click and Clack, the Tappet brothers. McGrath incorporates a lifetime of organic gardening tips with humor. McGrath features one tip to find a local “rent a goat place” (no joke) to get goats to eat the most troublesome weeds to a concerned caller considering setting much of her yard on fire.

Cultivating Place: Conversations on Natural History and the Human Impulse to Garden

Jennifer Jewell, the founder of Jewellgarden and Cultivating Place, achieves this mission through her writing, photographs, exhibits about and advocacy for gardens & natural history and through her weekly public radio program and podcast Cultivating Place: Conversations on Natural History and the Human Impulse to Garden, on gardens as integral to our natural and cultural literacy.

https://www.cultivatingplace.com/

My thoughts: sort of like On Being, but for gardening.

A fav episode:

If you aren’t so sure about this podcast thing, and just want a place to start, start here.

Do you really need a brain to sense the world around you? To remember? Or even learn? Well, it depends on who you ask. Jad and Robert, they are split on this one. Today, Robert drags Jad along on a parade for the surprising feats of brainless plants. Along with a home-inspection duo, a science writer, and some enterprising scientists at Princeton University, we dig into the work of evolutionary ecologist Monica Gagliano, who turns our brain-centered worldview on its head through a series of clever experiments that show plants doing things we never would’ve imagined. Can Robert get Jad to join the march?

https://www.wnycstudios.org/podcasts/radiolab/articles/smarty-plants

The Weather Outside is About to Change

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October is the month the garden takes its final breath, the first frost arrives (this week!) and pumpkin-everything surrounds us. We’ll still have some beautiful fall days, but there’s no denying it, the growing season is coming to a close. So with that in mind, here’s a round up of helpful information for the days, weeks and months ahead.

  • Sometimes working less is working smarter – find tips for putting the garden to bed here and here.
  • Why am I always late scheduling this? Instructions for winterizing sprinkler systems here. (It’s helpful to read even if you leave this task to others.)
  • Have your houseplants been living outdoors? With temperatures about to plunge, it’s time that vacation comes to an end. Some good reminders on how to help them transition to lower light can be found here. 
  • My Chanticleer Pear tree (Pyrus calleryana ) is soooo prone to storm damage in both the fall and the spring – this CSU PlantTalk article provides excellent information on snow-load damage and pruning of herbaceous plants.
  • If you have upright junipers, you know they are also prone to winter splitting. Here are some excellent tips on preventing structural damage, including a creative use for Christmas lights.
  • And finally, be mindful of the winter moisture levels. “Your Yard is Thirsty” offers advice on winter watering of a variety of plants.

Written by Linda McDonnell, a Denver County Master Gardener

Image by Anne Hughes, a Denver County Master Gardener

 

 

A Denverite Visits New Orleans in July, Leaves in Awe That Anything Grows in Colorado, Like, Ever.

Image by McKenna Hynes

I recently returned from a little summer vaca in the South. New Orleans in July (a questionably timed vacation, albeit) is showy and fragrant; the ferns suckle lovingly to any crack and crevice providing green brush-strokes and blots everywhere, palms fill beds and pots alike, all of my houseplants are thriving in the wide open, the sun is scorching, and as our pilot reminded us as we prepared to de-plane, its humid enough to confuse a frog. I was constantly amazed at how effortlessly everything seemed to grow.

While in New Orleans, I was frequently amused by how the rest of the country (mis)understands Colorado living conditions. For the most part, folks think we spend most of the year dreaming of gardens as we stare out our frosty windows waiting for the snow to melt, visiting floral places abroad, and wearing multiple layers of socks at all times. Soooo… basically gardening at 10,000+ feet? While these perceptions are laughable, I started thinking that even though we don’t live in perpetual wintry wonder, the challenges we face to make anything grow aren’t necessarily less surmountable than our fam in the lofty-actual-mountains.

We were welcomed back to Denver with a remarkable storm featuring lightning, torrential rains, booming thunder… and hail. Of course, the very next day was smokin’ hot with nary a whisper of the siege.  Maintaining a vibrant garden in the Front Range is an extreme sport with our baffling daily fluctuations; the entire notion of keeping anything alive here seems impossible at times, but we’ve gotten pretty good at strategizing. Here are a few resources I’ve tracked down this year to help us all maintain beauty, build our skills, and be stewards to our land and community.

Image by McKenna Hynes

Resource Central is a nonprofit organization based in Boulder that helps communities conserve resources and build sustainability efforts simply and cost-effectively. Their water-saving initiatives include native plant sales with simple designs for home gardens and often include low water perennials. They also have a tool library in Boulder where you can borrow for a couple of bucks per day so you don’t just buy the tamper, hedge trimmer, turf roller, or post hole diggers you need so infrequently. 

The cities of Boulder, Lafayette, and Louisville partnered with Resource Central to give customers a Garden In A Box for turf-removal. Their Grass to Garden initiative is available to all communities with tips and resources to convert high water-consuming turf to low water garden areas. For the North Metro area, they have resources for assistance removing and disposing of turf, landscape architect recommendations, and more.


Denver Water coined one of our most successful water-wise strategies with xeriscaping. And to keep sharing the good water word, Denver Water also partnered with local landscape architects to provide us mere civilians with some FREE! FREE! FREE! creativity. For those of us who are new (it’s me) who struggle with vision (all me), and are easily overwhelmed by the thought of starting fresh with a blank canvas (still, totally, all me), they’ve curated a bunch of plans for a variety of situations. They have plans for sloped xeriscaping, budget-friendly xeriscaping, narrow bed xeriscaping, year-round beauty designs, and many more. July is also Smart Irrigation Month! Head to Denver Water for tips on maintaining irrigation systems, watering rules, and efficiency strategies.

And for the grand finale top-notch gardening game-changer, check out Plant Select for all your future dreaming. Plant Select is a nonprofit partnership between Colorado State University, Denver Botanic Gardens, and professional horticulturists to identify smart plant choices for the Rocky Mountian Region. Their mobile-friendly site has a tool to help you find plants that will suit the conditions you’re facing. I tend to challenge the tool to see how obscure or specific I can get, and it always provides me with something unique and gorgeous. Plant Select: taking “right plant right place” to an accessible and fun platform. Say So Long! to the multiple Google tabs researching the same plant with contradicting information on each site; Goodbye! Big Box Store swindlers promising “You REALLY can’t kill this one!” and go get yourself some good, wholesome, ACCURATE information quickly and easily from Plant Select. They also feature some garden designs and ideas.

By McKenna Hynes

Apprentice Colorado Master Gardener since January 2019

Why Leaves Linger

Here we are in mid-January and  most deciduous trees and shrubs (excluding conifers) have shed their leaves. But long after the last frost and through a couple of modest snow storms, there are still trees around the front range with leaves that are stubbornly hanging on, as you can see from the photos I took in my neighborhood last week.

Marcescence is the retention of dried, dead leaves during the winter. Typically, as woody plants prepare to shed their leaves in the fall, cells at the junction of the twig and the leaf petiole (stem) release enzymes and form an abscission layer, which aids in the separation of the leaf. Marcescent leaves do not develop this thin-walled cell layer and therefore, do not drop readily.

Early severe cold weather can cause marcescence as the development of the abscission layer is halted and the leaves do not release. Front range gardeners will recall an extreme case in November 2014 when an exceedingly mild fall was interrupted by a one day temperature plunge from a high of 58 degrees to a low of 16 degrees. The result was subsequent damage and loss of many hardwood plants the following season and beyond.

Some plants are more apt to hold leaves longer, including several oak species, hazelnuts, American lindens and beech trees.  According to Jim Finley of Pennsylvania State University, “Marcescent leaves are often more common with smaller trees or more apparent on lower branches of larger trees, which in forest conditions would be growing beneath taller trees where the reduced sunlight might slow the abscission process.”  Lower leaves are therefore exposed to cooler temperatures, resulting in leaf retention. It should be noted that upper leaves can also exhibit marcescence.

Marcescent leaves eventually drop, either due to wind, snow load or the push of new spring growth. Under normal circumstances, marscence does not damage trees.

References:

“Winter Leaves that Hang On”, Jim Finley, Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, Pennsylvania State University.

Written by Linda McDonnell, a Denver County Master Gardener

Your Yard is Thirsty

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When I moved to Colorado three decades ago I expected to be knee-deep in snow and cold to the bone for months on end. Little did I know, Denver winters have long dry stretches, moderate daytime temperatures and bright sunshine that melts snow before it needs to be shoveled. So much easier than the New Jersey winters of my youth. The downside is that plants often suffer from lack of moisture. This year I’m being especially diligent about winter watering to help  newly planted trees, shrubs and perennials make it through their first winter and thrive in the future. Whether nurturing young plants or insuring the longevity of established ones, here are Colorado State University’s recommendations for cold season landscape care.

  • From November to March, give plants a good drink when four weeks elapse without snow cover or adequate moisture. March is the metro area’s snowiest month (11″); January (7″) and February (6″) average the least.
  • Water when temperatures are above 40° and early enough in the day for the moisture to soak into the ground before temperatures dip below freezing.
  • Reflective heat from buildings, the lower angle of the sun and areas prone to intense wind cause root systems to dry out more quickly, watch plants in these areas closely and water accordingly.
  • Newly planted trees establish slowly – one year for every inch of trunk diameter, (measure 6″ above the soil ). A good rule of thumb is to apply 10 gallons of water per inch of trunk diameter each time you water. Water around the tree, out to the drip line and beyond. The goal is to send moisture to the tree’s entire root system at a depth of 12″. I’ve found running a sprinkler for 30 minutes does the job nicely.
  • Newly planted shrubs require more moisture than established ones (over one year old). A first year, 3′ tall shrub requires 5 gallons per watering.
  • Mulch is a plant’s friend – it helps maintain moisture and mitigate the damaging thaw/frost cycle.
  • Newly seeded lawns and perennials (especially fall planted ones) will benefit from supplemental watering if precipitation is low, too.

According to globalwarmingdenver.com, we’ve received just .02″ moisture in the last two weeks and are about 2.5″ below average precipitation year-to-date. Given our dry days and spring-like temperatures, it’s  about time to unwind the hoses.
For more information:
Planttalk Colorado: Fall & Winter Watering
Colorado State University: Fall & Winter Watering Fact Sheet 7.211

Photo credit: Pixabay.com, a source for royalty free images
Written by: Linda McDonnell, a Denver County Master Gardener

Rabbits!

rabbit-717855_960_720With apologies to Bugs, Peter and Thumper, rabbits are real pests in the garden. Parts of the Denver metro area are inundated with them, while others are not – at least yet. I’ve been seeing them in my central Denver neighborhood for the last few years. They reliably devour my lettuce each spring  and feast on Goldstrum Rudbeckia in August.

If you’re not sure if rabbits are the culprits to your plant damage, look for clean, 45 degree angle cuts, mowed down seemingly overnight. Damage is usually up to 24″ high and most often on tender new growth.

While a hungry rabbit will eat many plants, in the vegetable garden they prefer young tender shoots of lettuce, beans, squash  and broccoli.  They also love to munch on many ornamentals such as black-eyed susans, pansies, marigolds, petunias, gazania and ornamental grasses.

Nothing will completely deter a brazen bunny, but a combination of the following practices may curb their ways.

Fencing – Erect 3′ high barriers with chicken wire with 1″ mesh openings around your garden plots. Rabbits love to burrow, so be sure to bury the fencing 6″ deep.

Plants – Colorado State University reports that sedum, foxglove, iris, lambs ear, red hot poker, yarrow, yucca, apache plume and blue mist spirea are somewhat rabbit resistant. Rabbits’ taste buds vary just as ours do, so no plant is 100% off-limits.

Predators – Wildlife such as foxes, coyotes, hawks, adult owls and rattlesnakes will send rabbits packing. So will your cat or dog, who will get the added benefit of a good workout from chasing bunnies.

Repellents – Products containing capsaicin (pepper extract) , castor oil, ammonium salts or predator urine can be effective when sprayed to a height of 3 feet and reapplied after heavy rains or watering. Some newer eco-safe sprays deter rabbits and deer, are less effected by moisture and emit a long-lasting scent (undetectable by humans) which repel rabbits. These are not recommended for edible plants.

Winter Care – Rabbits feast on our landscape in the winter by chewing on woody shrubs and the bark of your trees (fruit trees are a favorite). Protect these plants with fencing. Also remove thick underbrush and tall weeds and grasses which create comfy winter shelter. Seal up openings around decks, sheds and crawl spaces, too. By removing an inviting resting place, rabbits are encouraged to seek shelter elsewhere.

Have you had success in preventing rabbit damage?

References:

http://planttalk.colostate.edu/topics/wildlife-issues/2305-ravishing-rabbit-revenge

http://www.denverpost.com/2013/06/19/bunny-rabbit-plague-hits-colorado-gardens-what-to-do/

Photo Credit:

www.Pixabay.com, a source for royalty free images.

Written by Linda McDonnell, Denver County Master Gardener

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Never Put a $10 Plant in a 10¢ Hole and Other Gardening Tips From Denver Master Gardeners

planting-1898946_1920Passionate gardeners love to talk about gardening, so with that in mind, we recently asked Denver Master Gardeners for their best gardening advice. Responses included tried-and-true practices, creative suggestions and good reminders for all of us as the gardening season kicks into full gear.

As the title of this post implies, we believe that great plants come from appropriate soil preparation. Amending with compost is often imperative as soil in our region tends to lack organic matter. But proceed with caution, as some plants, such as natives, prefer a leaner, less fertile soil. Too rich soil will cause these plants to underperform and often just flop over. It pays to do a little homework before planting, read seed package directions and have your soil tested.

One of our gardeners shared her recipe for amending soil: Add 1/2 a handful of both Alaskan fish pellets and triple super phosphate to half a bucket (such as a kitty litter pail) full of compost. Mix this into the planting hole for strong root development and beautiful blossoms.

A tip borrowed from the Rock Garden Society is to plant bare root. By gently shaking off most or all of the soil that the plant is purchased in, the plant will adjust to the garden soil without the soil interface (or boundary) that can occur between two soil types. Bare root planting promotes healthy root development.

mulch-1100555_1920Mulch, mulch, mulch is the mantra of many of our survey respondents as it keeps weeds out and moisture in. Add it like crazy each time you dig in the veggie, perennial and annual gardens and don’t forget container plants too. Small to medium-sized bark chips are popular, practical and pleasing to the eye. Natural mulch options are very effective, including not quite finished compost from the compost bin which will add carbon, feed living organisms, prevent water runoff and prevent compaction. Local arborists are often willing to drop off wood chips which would otherwise fill up the landfill. In the fall, mow over your leaves and spread them throughout the yard, they’ll breakdown by spring and add organic matter to your soil. Consider purchasing a chipper to grind up branches and other garden waste.

garden-hose-413684_1920Suggestions for responsible use of water include watering when the plant needs it instead of on a set schedule. Soaker hoses, often made from recycled material, are effective for watering plants at the soil line. Plants (even xeric ones)  need moisture to maintain healthy roots and overall strength, but often less than we think. For example, the Water Smart Garden at the Denver Botanic Gardens is watered about seven times during the season.

Weeding can feel like a no-win battle, but attacking weeds after a soaking rain makes the task easier. Pull weeds and unwanted volunteer shrub and tree seedlings when they are small, before they take hold in the ground or develop seed. Add stepping stones to the garden to avoid stomping on plants and compacting soil when working in the garden.

bindweed-1207738_1920A clever tip to eliminate stubborn weeds, such as the nasty bindweed shown here, is to take a large piece of heavy cardboard, make a cut from the edge to the center. Keep the cardboard as level as possible, slip the vine in the center and spray the vine with the herbicide of your choice or horticultural vinegar, which is sold in garden centers. The cardboard will protect surrounding plants from overspray. Aggressive weeds may require multiple treatments during the season.

One of our members recommends a tomato planting technique passed on through generations of farmers. She adds blackened banana peel to the soil and feeds them with skim milk upon planting and again one month after that. This less conventional practice yields her sweet, abundant fruit. While CSU can’t vouch for the scientific efficacy of this, the banana could be adding potassium and the addition of calcium may reduce the chances of blossom end rot.

plant-1585251_1920Growing tomatoes in containers is recommended for those with limited space. Select varieties which produce smaller fruit such as Patio, Cherry or Sungold. Use a large container (18+ inches in diameter), a sturdy support and a tray with casters. This allows plants to be moved from the path of hail or to optimal conditions. Container plants of all kinds benefit from weekly feeding of 1/2 strength fertilizer.

To keep pests at bay, try a thorough weekly spray of water during the growing season, including the walls of the house and fence. It’s a kinder way to shoo pests away.

If your vines need a sturdier trellis consider building one out of remesh, which can be found at hardware stores. It makes a durable, cost-effective support and can easily be cut with bolt cutters. It also can be attached to supports to create a dog run or create plant cages.

botanical-garden-413489_1920In the flower garden, invest in perennials for texture and dimension and add annuals for bold color. “Enjoy the randomness of some plants that choose their own spots to thrive” suggests one gardener. What a positive way to think of the seedlings that sprout up at this time of the year. Remember, too, that perennials may not come into their glory until the second growing season.

Gardening is a four season hobby. Winter watering of trees and shrubs will help keep them healthy and  veggie gardeners can get a jump on the season by using a cold frame or floating row cover to get an early start on lettuce, spinach and other cool season crops. Fall is a fantastic time to fertilize, aerate and over-seed the lawn. It is also an ideal season to divide perennials so that they settle in and are ready to take off in the spring.  Share your divisions with your neighbors, too, or trade for plants you’ve admired (envied?) in their yards. If you need more gardening space, solarizing or sheet composting is an excellent technique to ready a new garden bed and can be started throughout the year.

And lastly, a veteran gardener advises us to “Remember each little garden flower or planting arrangement is a moment in time. It will change. Don’t worry about it or take it too seriously.”

 

Written by Linda McDonnell with thanks to the many Denver Master Gardeners who shared their advice.

All photos courtesy of http://www.pixabay.com, a source of royalty free images.